1. Counting jails and prisons approximately how many citizens are incarcerated?
A. a. 1 million
B. b. 2.3 million
C. c. 3 million
D. d. 4.3 million
2. Which important scholar argued that criminals and their punishment are functional in society help to define norms and expectations for conformity?
A. a. Emile Durkheim
B. b. Cesare Beccaria
C. c. Travis Hirshchi
D. d. Cesare Lombroso
3. Political liberals and _______________ encouraged reform of the prison system during the Enlightenment Period.
A. a. Political conservatives
B. b. independents
C. c. religious groups
D. d. political liberals
4. Lex talionis embodies which of the following principles?
A. a. Punishment should correspond in degree and kind to the offense.
B. b. An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth is legal punishment.
C. c. Punishment needs to be proportionate.
D. d. All of these
5. The Penitentiary Act was based upon four core principles where prisoners were confined in solitary cells and labored silently in common rooms. They include
A. a. secure and sanitary conditions.
B. b. nonsystematic inspections.
C. c. fees for inmates.
D. d. a continued regimen.
6. How was the existing system of justice altered during the Enlightenment?
A. a. People reconsidered the administration of law and redefined corrections.
B. b. During this period the classical school of criminology emerged with its insistence on a rational link between the gravity of the crime and the severity of the punishment.
C. c. The social contract and utilitarianism emphasized limitations on the government and the need to erect a system of punishments so that people would be deterred from crime.
D. d. All of these
7. The __________ was a penitentiary system developed in Pennsylvania in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates.
A. a. congregate system
B. b. assemble system
C. c. separate confinement system
D. d. segregated confinement system
8. During the Progressive Reform Era two main strategies were implemented. They included improving conditions in social environments and ______________.
A. a. feeding inmates better food.
B. b. ensuring prisoners were not in solitude.
C. c. reintegrating inmates into society.
D. d. rehabilitating individual offenders.
9. The Military Commissions Act (MCA) __________ the ability of unlawful enemy combatants to file a writ of habeas corpus.
A. a. permits
B. b. fosters
C. c. enhances
D. d. eliminates
10. Which court decision held the basic elements of procedural due process must be present when decisions are made concerning the disciplining of an inmate?
A. a. Wolff v. McDonnell
B. b. Holt v. Sarver
C. c. Estelle v. Gamble
D. d. Pugh v. Locke
11. Which case allowed inmates to sue state officials for brutality inadequate medical care and nutrition theft of personal property and the denial of basic rights:
A. a. Cooper v. Pate
B. b. Terry v. Ohio
C. c. Carroll v US
D. d. Gregg v GA
12. In Boumediene v. Bush the Court ruled the detainees at Guantanamo Bay are entitled to:
A. a. a lawyer.
B. b. challenge the conditions of their confinement.
C. c. one hour of exercise a day.
D. d. file writs of habeas corpus.
13. According to the Supreme Court the term totality of conditions may be legally interpreted as:
A. a. cruel and unusual punishment.
B. b. unfair
C. c. unreasonable.
D. d. irrational.
14. The right to be free from cruel and unusual punishment is found in which Amendment?
A. a. First
B. b. Fourth
C. c. Eighth
D. d. Fourteenth
15. Experts usually cite _________ as reasons wrongful convictions occur.
A. a. plea-bargaining pressures
B. b. community pressure
C. c. eyewitness error
D. d. all of these
16. Probationary sentences emphasize guidance and ______________ in the community.
A. a. employment
B. b. educational attainment
C. c. supervision
D. d. family connectivity
17. In the Booker decision the justices said that sentencing guidelines are:
A. a. mandatory.
B. b. discretionary.
C. c. ridiculous.
D. d. binding.
18. Restorative justice sees crime as a violation against which of the following?
A. a. Victim and community
B. b. Offender and the state
C. c. Law and justice
D. d. Fairness and equity
19. Which of the following is an argument for a centralized probation authority?
A. a. Decentralized programs are often unprofessional and lag behind the times
B. b. It is able to train staff for a variety of roles
C. c. It is able to implement broader program with greater equality in supervision and services
D. d. All of these.
20. Which of the following was not an innovation initially developed by John Augustus?
A. a. Probation
B. b. Supervision conditions
C. c. Home detention
D. d. Presentence investigation
21. Between 1200 and 1827 English law:
A. a. discriminated against the upper social classes.
B. b. strove for equality in all matters.
C. c. discriminated against monks nuns and priests.
D. d. discriminated in favor of the upper social classes.
22. Recognizance was first used in court to recognize a formally recorded ___________to perform some act entered by a judge to permit an offender to live in the community.
A. a. indebtedness
B. b. obligation
C. c. appreciation
D. d. debt
23. Judges may use a range of ________________ sanctions from those exerting a low level of control to those exerting a high level of control.
A. a. truth in sentencing
B. b. determinate
C. c. intermediate
D. d. mandatory
24. The concept of community corrections is best understood as a goal. That goal clearly is to:
A. a. save money.
B. b. reduce reliance on prisons.
C. c. reduce crime.
D. d. both save money and reduce reliance on prisons.
25. The new movement that seeks to establish correctional programs falling between standard probation and prison is called:
A. a. penal sanctions.
B. b. probation.
C. c. primary sanctions.
D. d. intermediate sanctions.
26. A major criticism of probation as traditionally practiced is that:
A. a. it is too impersonal.
B. b. the probation officers dont really care about the client.
C. c. it is inadequate for a large number of offenders.
D. d. there arent enough offenders to make it work.
27. Probation granted under conditions of strict reporting to a probation officer with a limited caseload is known as:
A. a. intensive supervision program
B. b. presentence investigation
C. c. supervision intensive program
D. d. individual program supervision
28. According to your text jail suicides are primarily caused by:
A. a. the limited personal space provided in jail facilities.
B. b. the crisis nature of arrest and detention.
C. c. emotional instability which is exacerbated by the jail experience.
D. d. both the crisis nature of arrest and detention and emotional instability.
29. By far the most successful pretrial release program is:
A. a. unsecured bail.
B. b. percentage bail.
C. c. forfeit bail.
D. d. release on recognizance (ROR).
30. __________ is a drug that inhibits drinking.
A. a. Methadone
B. b. Cocaine
C. c. Antabuse
D. d. Malabuse
31. Americas oldest prison was built in 1798. This prison was located in what city in New Jersey:
A. a. Dalton
B. b. Trenton
C. c. Wilmington
D. d. Wilbur
32. The prison design most often used for female and juvenile inmates is:
A. a. Radial design
B. b. telephone pole design
C. c. campus style
D. d. courtyard style
33. The __________ model was dominant in the 1960s and early 1970s.
A. a. retribution
B. b. incapacitation
C. c. rehabilitation
D. d. reintegration
34. At present the focus of corrections has shifted to:
A. a. crime control.
B. b. rehabilitation.
C. c. treatment.
D. d. restitution.
35. Most prisons employ a __________ model.
A. a. rehabilitative
B. b. reintegration
C. c. retributive
D. d. custodial
36. According to sociologists the big house image of the American prison has:
A. a. ceased to show a limited understanding of the contemporary prison.
B. b. provided us with a deeper understanding of the modern prison.
C. c. spawned a great deal of humanitarian reform in the eyes of the public.
D. d. created interest in the operations of the modern prison among the general public.
37. A majority of all state prisoners throughout the country are housed in __________ prisons.
A. a. maximum security
B. b. medium security
C. c. minimum security
D. d. super max
38. With the correctional focus shifting to crime control some believe offenders have had it too soft resulting in:
A. a. the institution of strict regimes in prisons.
B. b. the removal of educational and recreational amenities from prisons.
C. c. an increase in the number of people in prison.
D. d. all of these.
39. Responsibility of housing federal pretrial detainees belongs to:
A. a. the FBI.
B. b. the Secret Service.
C. c. the Marshals Service.
D. d. none of these.
40. Prisons designed to hold the toughest of the tough are called:
A. a. maximum security prisons.
B. b. solitary confinement.
C. c. custodial confinement.
D. d. super-max prisons.
41. In prison gangs are organized primarily to:
A. a. control an institutions drug trade.
B. b. control gambling and extortion within the institution.
C. c. control debt-collection rackets within the institution.
D. d. all of these.
42. A set of rules of conduct that reflect the values and norms of the prison social system and help to define for inmates the characteristics associated with the model prisoner is known as the:
A. a. institutional code.
B. b. informal code.
C. c. prison code.
D. d. inmate code.
43. The adaptive role within prison where inmates see the period in prison as a temporary break in their criminal careers is known as: When an inmate views his/her incarceration as a temporary break in their criminal career their adaptive role is known as:
A. a. jailing.
B. b. gleaning.
C. c. hustling.
D. d. doing time.
44. Because inmates are not allowed to carry any currency the primary method of exchange in prison is:
A. a. narcotics.
B. b. cigarettes.
C. c. bug juice.
D. d. sex.
45. Correctional leaders have found the best way to weaken prison gangs is to:
A. a. negotiate between gang members.
B. b. place gang members in solitary confinement.
C. c. transfer gang members to another institution.
D. d. all of these.
46. Which of the following is not a purpose of gangs in prison?
A. a. protection
B. b. extortion
C. c. religion
D. d. camaraderie
47. Inmates who fall victim to sexual violence while incarcerated tend to be:
A. a. a gang leader
B. b. correction officer
C. c. elderly
D. d. not affiliated with a gang
48. In prison terminology the fish is a(n):
A. a. career criminal.
B. b. newcomer.
C. c. gang member.
D. d. elderly inmate.
49. A principal feature in prison society which reinforces the norms and roles of the social system and influences the nature of interpersonal relationships is known as:
A. a. cable TV.
B. b. programming.
C. c. the yard.
D. d. an underground economy.
50. In 2003 the Prison Rape Elimination Act was created in order to:
A. a. gather national statistics on prison rape.
B. b. make prison rape illegal.
C. c. honor a rape victim.
D. d. support prisoners rights.